To assess the association between homocysteine and vitamins levels with MCI and AD in Cuban elderly.
A cross section study was carried out in 428 subjects older than 65 years; 47 with AD, 131 with MCI and 250 healthy subjects from different areas of Havana city. Dementia was diagnosed using the 10/66 Dementia and DSM-IV criteria and MCI with the Hughes Clinical Dementia Rating. Plasma Homocysteine (enzymatic assay by autoanalyzer), vitamin C (dinitrophenyl-hydrazine assay) and vitamin A (HPLC) were determined. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were analyzed by electroquiminescense immunoassay. Total blood thiamine was measured by TPP-effect and riboflavin by erythrocyte gluthathione reductase activation coefficient. ANOVA, Pearson’s Chi square, prevalence ratios and multivariate analyses were used for data analysis
AD subjects showed higher homocysteine and lower vitamin C and vitamin A levels than MCI and healthy individuals. Thiamine level was not significantly different among the groups. Higher homocysteine levels were associated with higher MCI and AD prevalence. Additionally low folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C levels were associated to higher prevalence of AD.
Those nutritional indicators are associated to MCI and AD, without identifying if they are cause or consequence of disease.