To characterize the national Vitamin A program coverage among preschool children and identify risk factors for not receiving Vitamin A
Multiple Cluster Indicator Surveys (MICS 3, 2007) data was used. Anthropometric and demographic data were examined in 10,823 children aged 6-59 months. Multivariate logistic regression using Hierarchical approach was used to identify risk factors.
Only 38 percent of children 6-59 months received vitamin A supplements in the past six months. After adjusting for confounders the likelihood of receiving vitamin A supplements was associated with richest wealth index quintile (OR =3.55; 95% CI, 2.76-4.57), maternal education of primary level (OR =2.49, 95% CI, 2.24-2.77), ownership of mobile phone (OR=1.31, 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), Christianity as religion (OR=1.30, 95% CI, 1.16-1.47), Yoruba ethnic group (OR=4.67, 95% CI, 3.47-6.28), child ever breastfed (OR=3.44, 95% CI, 2.63-4.49), child sleeping under bed net (OR=1.54, 95% CI, 1.25-1.90), illness with cough, fever, and diarrhoea (had similar OR=1.23) compared to the reference population of each group. A significant but lower likelihood of receiving vitamin A capsules was found among children who were underweight (OR=0.89, 95% CI, 0.79-0.99), lived in residence with improved source of drinking water (OR=0.88, 95% CI, 0.80-0.97), resided in urban residence (OR=0.88, 95% CI, 0.78-0.99) and lived in dwellings with rudimentary finishing (OR=0.80, 95% CI, 0.70-0.91).
Children who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have increased risk of not receiving vitamin A supplementation.