Iodine status of complementary-fed South African infants receiving lipid-based nutrient supplements: A randomized controlled trial

Abstract Number Theme Presentation Type Cover Approved
0560 Iron, zinc, vitamin A, iodine, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin D, multiple micronutrients Poster Not Approved


Abstract Content


The introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. Thus, iodine fortification of complementary foods is recommended to ensure sufficient intake.The objetives of this study were to assess iodine status of peri-urban complementary-fed South African infants and to test the efficacy of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) in maintaining adequate iodine status.


Infants aged six months (n=750) were assigned to one of two SQ-LNS/day, both fortified with 45µg iodine, or a control group not receiving SQ-LNS. Urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were measured at baseline (n=386) and at 12 months (n=262).


The geometric mean (95%CI) UIC at baseline was 333.8 (310.5,358.9)µg/L and decreased to 214.9 (189.2,242.6)µg/L at 12 months. Non-breastfed infants had lower UIC (159.6 [65.9,397.5]µg/L) and higher odds for being iodine deficient (UIC<100µg/L) than infants who continued to be breastfed (373.2 [202.6,522.9]µg/L) at 12 months. Infants receiving SQ-LNS had higher UIC (P=0.025) and lower odds for having a UIC<100µg/L at 12 months than controls, adjusting for maternal baseline UIC, age, sex and continued breastfeeding. In sub-group analysis, the effect of SQ-LNS for higher UIC at 12 months was only apparent in non-breastfed infants (P=0.039). These effects were no longer significant after adjusting for infant baseline UIC, reducing the sample size to n=124.


Only in non-breastfed infants iodine intake decreased from six to 12 months. In those, the provision of 45 µg iodine per day as SQ-LNS resulted in higher UIC at 12 months, but was not efficacious in counteracting an overall decline in iodine status.

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