In Ethiopia, there are no data which reflect the current prevalence of Iodine deficiency at the national and regional levels. The 2015 Ethiopia National Micronutrient Survey (ENMS) estimated the national and regional prevalence of Iodine deficiency among school children and women of reproductive age and the coverage of iodized salt.
Goiter examination, urine and salt sample was collected from 366 enumeration areas across the country. In this survey 1852 urine samples of school children and 1813 urine samples of women of reproductive age were analyzed and 3221 salt samples analyzed. The prevalence of Iodine deficiency was determined by measuring urinary iodine level using SandellKolthoff reaction and Goiter grading was done based on WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD criteria. The analysis of iodine in salt was determined by using titration method.
The national median urinary iodine concentration in school children and women of reproductive age were 105.59 and 98.18ug/l, respectively. The highest median urinary iodine in school children was detected in Afar, Somali and Tigray regions were 339 ug/l, 333 ug/l and 206 ug/l, respectively. At national level total goiter rate in school age children and reproductive age women were 3.7% and 10.8%, respectively. At national level only 26% of household gets adequate iodized salt (>15ppm).
Iodine deficiency is a public health problem in Ethiopia. Strengthen action towards universal iodization of salt in the country, especially in the three region namely Gambela, SNNPR and Amhara regions below coverage of adequate iodized salt.