We evaluated the influence of maternal factors related to Vitamin A (VA) in colostrums, an essential nutrient for the growth and development of newborns.
160 mothers at <3-day of delivery were enrolled for an ongoing clinical trial of placebo-controlled postpartum VA supplementation (NCT02043223) conducted in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The presented results were from baseline data before supplementation. Anthropometry, breastfeeding practice and dietary data were collected. VA content in colostrums and C-reactive protein (CRP) in maternal plasma were measured.
At <3 day postpartum, mothers with normal body weight (BMI: >18.5 – <25.0) had significantly higher VA content in colostrums and lower plasma CRP than obese mothers (BMI: >30.0) (p<0.01). Overweight mothers (BMI: >25.0 – <30.0) followed the similar trend of association with normal body weight and obese mothers. Mother's BMI was found negatively associated with colostrums VA (r=-0.219, p=0.01) while positively associated with plasma CRP (r=0.314, p<0.01). These associations remained after adjustment for different covariates in the multivariate regression analysis e.g. gestational age, mother age, type of delivery, baby sex and breastfeeding practice. Colostrums VA was not associated with plasma CRP level. Multivariate regression also revealed that non-exclusive breastfeeding and mothers who endured C-section delivery had elevated plasma CRP (p=0.01) at 3 day postpartum. Mothers who gave birth to baby boys also had higher plasma CRP.
Maternal obesity has negative impact on vitamin A content in colostrums, particularly in developing country settings where consumption of dietary vitamin A is limited and obesity rates are growing.