Development of capacities in childhood and adulthood depends primarily on the environnement during pregnancy. Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines involved in food intake and energy balance of the human, especially during pregnancy. The leptin/adiponectin ratio (LAR) is related to insulin resistance and diabetes in non pregnancyconditions.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between LAR ratio and insulin, glucose and lipid profile during normal pregnancy.
A total of 32 women, pregnant of singleton fÅtus with a gestational age less than 11 weeks participated in this study. Recruited women were followed at 12, 22-24 and 34-36 weeks of pregnancy. Maternal body fat (BF) was assessed using the dilution of deuterium oxide (D2O). Blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides were also measured. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations were assayed using radioimmunoassaykits.
Mean age of the participants was 26.8±5.8 years. LAR ratios during for the first, second and third trimesters were 1.99±1.41 ng/mg, 1.20±1.37 ng/mg and 1.19±1.41 ng/ mg. LAR was positively correlated to maternal insulin levels in all trimesters (respectively r=0.64, p<0.001; r= 0.39, p=0.032; r=0.39, p=0.038). Additionally, HDL (r=0.45, p=0.012), LDL (r=0.41, p=0.023) at the first trimester, BF (r=0.48, p<0.01) at the second trimester, and glucose (r=0.48, p<0.01) at the third trimester, were correlated to LAR. LDL cholesterol (r=-0.39, p=0.039) was inversely correlated to LAR at the third trimester.
Insulin levels were positively correlated to leptin-adiponectin ratio in all trimesters of pregnancy. Maternal body fat, glucose, and lipid profile were also correlated to leptin/adiponectin ratio at some extent. These correlations suggested a relationship between maternal LAR and insulin resistance, and pregnancy dislipidemia.