to evaluate relationship between pollution by heavy metals and anemia of school children from Hidalgo, Mexico.
In a probabilistic sample of 750 school children from Hidalgo Mexico, were evaluated hemoglobin levels with cyanmethemoglobin method. The anemia diagnosis was made: 5-11 years old children =11.5 g / dL and 12-15 years of = 12.0 g / dL. The quantification of chemical elements in dried blood was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive microanalysis X-ray. The elements analyzed were: sodium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, iron, zinc, copper, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen and silicon, chromium, lead, titanium, vanadium, nickel, arsenic, manganese, cadmium and mercury. Data are presented as relative proportions.
The prevalence of anemia was 11.7%. The averages of the elements evaluated did not differences between anemic (A) and non-anemic (NA,) except for arsenic (0.225 ± 0.17 vs 0.123 ± 0.09; p = 0.045 T-test), sulfur, carbon and nitrogen. In blood of children was Identified lead, chromium, vanadium, nickel, cadmium, titanium, silicon and manganese, but the average did not vary between A and NA.
Evidence that arsenic contamination is related to the 18% of students diagnosed with anemia was found. Heavy metals detected in the blood of children can affect the nutritional status and increase the risk for other diseases such as cancer.