Objective: To describe the distribution of VDD and VDI and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in a probabilistic sample.
Methods: Data on serum 25-hydroxivitamin-D were obtained in a probabilistic and representative sample of 4,133 females, aged between 20-49 years, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012 (ENSANUT-2012) stratified in VDD (<50 nmol/L) and VDI (50-75 nmol/L). The information on age, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, previous diagnosis of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and t2-DM was collected using questionnaires. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. The association between VDD and VDI and the cardiovascular risk factors was estimated by multiple logistic regression models.
Results: The prevalence of VDD was 36.6% and of IVD 50.2%. The VDD was significantly higher in urban areas, (40.1%), belonging to the 2 and 3 wellbeing index (WBI) tertiles (32.1 & 47.9%, respectively) compared with the lower, in tobacco (48.3%) and alcohol (45.3%) consumers than in non-consumers (33.3 & 36.2%, respectively). The VDD was positively associated with belonging to the higher tertile of WBI (RR:5.22) compared with the lower, having overweight/obesity (RR:2.26) compared with a normal BMI or having a previous diagnosis of t2-DM. (RR:2.43) compared with no diagnosis. VDD was also negatively associated with being indigenous (RR:0.44) and living in rural areas (RR:0.60). The VDI was positively associated with being 30-39 years old (RR:1.41), belonging to the higher tertile of WBI (RR:2.2) compared with the lower, making moderate physical activity (RR:1.52) compared with vigorous activity and being overweight/obese (RR:1.61) compared with a normal BMI. Hypertension was associated in females 20-39 years old with VDD (RR:6.17) and VDI (RR:3.08). VDD was associated with t2-DM. (RR:2.87) in females 40-49 years old.
Conclusion: The VDD/VDI is a public health problem in Mexican females of reproductive age, especially because it is associated with overweight/obesity, t2-DM and hypertension. Mexico is a country with a good sun exposure, though, the risk of VDD/VDI is high and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors.