The objective of the present cross-sectional analytical study was to assess the association between adiposity and diet in 126 apparently healthy pregnant women (between 15 and 33 gestation weeks) who underwent an ultrasound for routine obstetric care at the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit of the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca between July and September 2012.
Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the expected weight percentage for complexion and gestational age (%EW/CGA) were use to assess adiposity. To study the association between adiposity and diet, multiple linear regression models were built. Data were adjusted for maternal age, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, gestation weeks, parity, and occupation.
In the entire sample, the consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was inversely associated with: weight (b= -0.64; 95% CI -1.21, -0.07, p<0.001); %EW/CGA (b= -0.28; CI -0.69, -0.12, p<0.001); and the percentage of total body fat (b= -0.30; CI -0.68, -0.11, p<0.001). No statistically significant associations were observed in non-overweight women. In overweight women, both fruit consumption and MUFA had a negative association with percentage of total body fat (b= -0.40, CI -0.88, -0.08; b= -0.17, CI -0.31, -0.03, p<0.001). Fruit and MUFA intake were not associated with either weight or the %EG/CGA indicator (p = 0.09 and 0.08 respectively).
The results of this study suggest that eating fruits and foods rich in MUFA may contribute to a healthier body composition, which is, in turn, associated with reduced adiposity in pregnant women.