To calculate micronutrient adequacy among infants based on the Institute of Medicineâs recommendation and to determine the contribution of supplements to this adequacy.
A convenience sample of 254 infants aged 0-Â¬24 m from a WIC clinic in Puerto Rico was used in this study. Micronutrient intake was calculated from foods and supplements using two non-Â¬consecutive 24Â¬-hour recalls and compared between users and nonÂ¬-users of supplements using Studentâs t-Â¬test. Percentage adequacy was estimated by age group and type of feeding (breastfeeding, formula feeding, or combined).
A total of14.6% used dietary supplements. Micronutrient intake from foods was adequate in all infants, except for vitamin D. From foods only, % adequacy was higher for retinol and vitamin C in users (p<0.05) while it was higher for vitamin K in non-users (p<0.05). When supplements were taken into account, % adequacy of most micronutrients was lower in non-users compared with users of supplements (p<0.05). Adequate vitamin D intake was only achieved with supplements. Several nutrients were consumed above 300% adequacy from foods only, and this increased when supplements were taken into account. When evaluated by feeding type, vitamin D was below the recommendation in breastfed as well as formula fed infants; vitamin E was below only in breastfed infants; however, when supplements were taken into account, all groups achieved the recommendation.
Supplements helped achieve nutrient intake adequacy, particularly for vitamin D and E. Certain micronutrients were consumed in very high amounts, particularly among supplement users. It is important to understand these patterns, as it may be indicative of future nutritional deficiencies and excesses.